Fluid catalytic cracking
Refineries vary by complexity; more complex refineries have more secondary conversion capability, meaning they can produce different types of petroleum products. Fluid catalytic cracking FCC , a type of secondary unit operation, is primarily used in producing additional gasoline in the refining process. Unlike atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation , which are physical separation processes, fluid catalytic cracking is a chemical process that uses a catalyst to create new, smaller molecules from larger molecules to make gasoline and distillate fuels. The catalyst is a solid sand-like material that is made fluid by the hot vapor and liquid fed into the FCC much as water makes sand into quicksand. Because the catalyst is fluid, it can circulate around the FCC, moving between reactor and regenerator vessels see photo. The FCC uses the catalyst and heat to break apart the large molecules of gas oil into the smaller molecules that make up gasoline, distillate, and other higher-value products like butane and propane.
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Fluid catalytic cracking FCC is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline , olefinic gases, and other products. It also produces byproduct gases that have more carbon-carbon double bonds i. This portion of crude oil is often referred to as heavy gas oil or vacuum gas oil HVGO. In the FCC process, the feedstock is heated to a high temperature and moderate pressure, and brought into contact with a hot, powdered catalyst. The catalyst breaks the long-chain molecules of the high-boiling hydrocarbon liquids into much shorter molecules, which are collected as a vapor. Oil refineries use fluid catalytic cracking to correct the imbalance between the market demand for gasoline and the excess of heavy, high boiling range products resulting from the distillation of crude oil.
PDF | The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) technology is one of the pillars of on cracking catalyst during FCC process, including metals, sulfur.
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