Energy, Environment, Ecology and Society By Dr. D. D. MishraHerausgeber: Haberl , H. This book presents the current state of the art in Social Ecology as practiced by the Vienna School of Social Ecology, globally one of the main research groups in this field. The conceptual and methodological foundations of Social Ecology are discussed in detail, allowing the reader to obtain a broad overview of current socioecological thinking. Issues covered include socio-metabolic transitions, socioecological approaches to land use, the relation between actor-centered and system approaches, a socioecological theory of labor and the importance of legacies, as conceived in Environmental History and in Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research. To underpin this overview empirically, the strengths of socioecological research are elucidated in cases of cutting-edge research, introducing a variety of themes the Vienna School has been tackling empirically over the past years. Given how the field is presented — reflecting research carried out on different scales, reaching from local to global as well as from past to present and future — and due to the way the book is structured, it is suitable for classroom use, as a primer, and also as an overview of how Social Ecology evolved, right up to its current research frontiers. These insertions provide in-depth studies of several empirical approaches and explain the applied methods in a comprehensive manner, making a twofold contribution.
1 -ENVIRONMENT ECOLOGY II Environment by Shankar IAS academy
Philosophy of Biology
Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of ecosystems. Historical perspectives increase our understanding of the dynamic nature of landscapes and provide a frame of reference for assessing modern patterns and processes. Historical timeframes range from decades to millennia. As Aldo Leopold observed, "A science of land health needs, first of all, a base datum of normality, a picture of how healthy land maintains itself as an organism. Multiple, comparative histories from many locations can help evaluate both cultural and natural causes of variability and characterize the overall dynamic properties of ecosystems Swetnam et al. In fact, twentieth-century trends suggest that disregarding history can be perilous. Examples include the emergence of increasingly severe wildfire activity in the western United States and the role of extreme drought in triggering forest dieback and accelerated soil erosion in the American Southwest.
The book mainly discusses about the earth, environment, and issues concerning both in addition. It provides a general approach toward the available energy resources, environmental-related problems, methods to improve the environment, and relationship between environment and society. It also includes an in-depth analysis of the various types of pollution. This book combines theory with the data, facts, and figures, and includes the necessary additional information in each chapter included. Summing up, this book is a valuable source of information concerning environment and related environmental topics. Cover: Paperback.
The growth of philosophical interest in biology over the past thirty years reflects the increasing prominence of the biological sciences in the same period. There is now an extensive literature on many different biological topics, and it would be impossible to summarise this body of work in this single entry. Instead, this entry sets out to explain what philosophy of biology is. Why does biology matter to philosophy and vice versa? A list of the entries in the encyclopedia which address specific topics in the philosophy of biology is provided at the end of the entry. Three different kinds of philosophical enquiry fall under the general heading of philosophy of biology.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural , social , and built environments. The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology , geography , sociology , psychology , anthropology , zoology , epidemiology , public health , and home economics , among others. The roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology also has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations, understanding, and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience. Like other contemporary researchers of his time, Haeckel adopted his terminology from Carl Linnaeus where human ecological connections were more evident.
A scenario is a coherent, internally consistent, and plausible description of a potential future trajectory of a system e. Scenario planning exercises aim at articulating multiple alternative futures in a way that spans a key set of critical uncertainties Peterson et al. Scenario planning has its roots in operations research developed in the Second World War and was substantially elaborated upon in corporate strategic planning in the s. It has been increasingly applied in diverse environmental research contexts during the past 25 years, including biodiversity assessments, the management of protected areas, ecosystem services ES , and their relationship to human well-being, climate change, and land-use change in general, and more specifically, desertification and land degradation e. The steady increase of scenario planning in environmental research can be attributed to a number of perceived benefits. These include fostering long-term and complex thinking that allows for an exploration of the dynamics and sustainability of social-ecological systems.